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AMARANTH

QUINOA
Amaranthus caudatus (Kiwuicha) is a species of annual flowering plant. It goes by common names such as love-lies-bleeding, pendant amaranth, tassel flower, velvet flower, foxtail amaranth, and quilete.
Many parts of the plants, including the leaves and seeds, are edible, and are frequently used as a source of food in India and South America — where it is the most important Andean species of Amaranthus, known as Kiwicha (see also andean ancient plants).
This species, as with many other of the Amaranths, are originally from the American tropics. The exact origin is unknown, as A. caudatus is believed to be a wild Amaranthus hybridus aggregate.

The red color of the inflorescences is due to a high content of betacyanins, like in the related species known as "Hopi Red Dye" amaranth.
Ornamental garden varieties sold under the latter name are either Amaranthus cruentus or a hybrid between A. cruentus and Amaranthus powelli. In indigenous agriculture, Amaranthus cruentus is the Central American counterpart to South American Amaranthus caudatus.

caudatus can grow anywhere from 3 to 8 feet in height, and grows best in full sun. It can handle a variety of conditions, both humid and arid.

Amaranthus cruentus is a common flowering plant species that yields the nutritious staple amaranth grain. It is one of three Amaranthus species cultivated as a grain source, the other two being A. hypochondriacus and A. caudatus.
It has several common names, including purple amaranth, red amaranth, and Mexican grain amaranth.

Amaranthus cruentus is a tall annual herb topped with clusters of dark pink flowers. The plant can grow up to 2 m (6 ft) in height, and blooms in summer to fall. It has now naturalized in most states. It is believed to have originated from Amaranthus hybridus, with which it shares many morphological features. This species was in use as a food source in Central America as early as 4000 BC. The plant is usually green in color, but a purple variant was once grown for use in Inca rituals.

Uses
The seeds are eaten as a cereal grain. They are black in the wild plant, and white in the domesticated form. They are ground into flour, popped like popcorn, cooked into a porridge, and made into a confectionery called alegría. The leaves can be cooked like spinach, and the seeds can be germinated into nutritious sprouts. While A. cruentus is no longer a staple food, it is still grown and sold as a health food.

It is an important crop for subsistence farmers in Africa.

WHEAT FREE - GLUTEN FREE

amaranthus
amaranthus
AMARANTH
AMARANTH
Comp. between Amaranth and cereales
Composición
Amaranth
Wheat
Maize
Sorghum
Rice
Humidity (%)
8,0
12,5
13,8
11,0
11,7
Crude Protein (%)
15,8
14,0
10,3
12,3
8,5
Fat (%)
6,2
2,1
4,5
3,7
2,1
Fibre (%)
4,9
2,6
2,3
1,9
0,9
Ash (%)
3,4
1,9
1,4
1,9
1,4
Cal. /100g
366
343
352
359
353
Minerals Amaranth and Cereales
Elementos
Amaranth
Wheat
Rice
Maize
Ca (%)
0,14
0,02
0,02
0,01
P (%)
0,54
0,41
0,18
0,27
Mg (%)
0,22
0,10
0,08
0,13
K (%)
0,57
0,40
0,12
0,48
Mn (ppm)
12
28,00
7,00
7,00
Amaranth Seed
Several species are raised for amaranth "grain" in Asia and the Americas. This should more correctly be termed "pseudograin" (see below). They are highly edible by gluten intolerant individuals because they are not a member of the grass family and contain no gluten.
Ancient amaranth grains still used to this day include the three species, Amaranthus caudatus, Amaranthus cruentus, and Amaranthus hypochondriacus.  Although amaranth was (and still is) cultivated on a small scale in parts of Mexico, Guatemala, Peru, India, and Nepal, there is potential for further cultivation in the U.S and tropical countries and it is often referred to as "the crop of the future."    It has been proposed as an inexpensive native crop that could be cultivated by indigenous people in rural areas for several reasons: 1) it is easily harvested, 2) it produces lots of fruit and thus seeds, which are used as grain, 3) it is highly tolerant of arid environments, which are typical of most subtropical and some tropical regions, and 4) its seeds contain large amounts of protein and essential amino acids, such as lysine.  5) Amaranthus species are reported to have a 30% higher protein value than cereals, such as rice, wheat flour, oats, and rye.  6) It requires little fuel to cook. As befits its weedy life history, amaranth grains grow very rapidly and their large seedheads can weigh up to 1 kilogram and contain a half-million seeds.
Amaranth was one of the staple foodstuffs of the Incas, and it is known as kiwicha in the Andes today. It was also used by the ancient Aztecs, who called it huautli, and other Native America peoples in Mexico to prepare ritual drinks and foods. To this day, amaranth grains are toasted much like popcorn or martala and mixed with honey, molasses or chocolate to make a treat called alegría (joy in Spanish).
Because of its importance as a symbol of indigenous culture, and because it is very palatable, easy to cook, and its protein particularly well suited to human nutritional needs, interest in grain amaranth (especially A. cruentus and A. hypochondriacus) revived in the 1970s. It was recovered in Mexico from wild varieties and is now commercially cultivated. It is a popular snack sold in Mexico City and other parts of Mexico, sometimes mixed with chocolate or puffed rice, and its use has spread to Europe and parts of North America. Amaranth and quinoa are called pseudograins because of their flavor and cooking similarities to grains. These are dicot plant seeds, and both contain exceptionally complete protein for plant sources. Besides protein, amaranth grain provides a good source of dietary fiber and dietary minerals such as iron, magnesium, phosphorus, copper, and especially manganese. It has been claimed to be beneficial in preventing greying of hair.
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QUINOA (Quinua)

Wild distribution
Preparation 
Nutritional value
Recipes
Saponin content
Products
quinoa
quinoa grain
Chenopodium quinoa
Quinoa grain
quinoa roja
Red quinoa
Red Quinoa
Red Quinoa
red quinoa
Black quinoa
Red Quinoa
Black Quinoa
quinoa food
quinoa food
Quinoa Food
Quinoa is an easy food to prepare

Quinoa is a species of goosefoot (Chenopodium) grown as a crop primarily for its edible seeds. It is a pseudocereal rather than a true cereal as it is not a grass. Its leaves are also eaten as a leaf vegetable, much like amaranth, but the commercial availability of quinoa greens is currently limited.

Quinoa originated in the Andean region of South America, where it has been an important food for 6,000 years. Its name is the Spanish spelling of the Quechua name. Quinoa is generally undemanding and altitude-hardy, so it can be easily cultivated in the Andes up to about 4,000 meters.
Even so, it grows best in well-drained soils and requires a relatively long growing season. In eastern North America, it is susceptible to a leaf miner that may reduce crop success; this leaf miner also affects the common weed Chenopodium album, but C. album is much more resistant.

Similar Chenopodium species, such as Pitseed Goosefoot (Chenopodium berlandieri) and Fat Hen (Chenopodium album) were grown and domesticated in North America as part of the Eastern Agricultural Complex before maize agriculture became popular. Fat Hen, which has a widespread distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, produces edible seeds and greens much like quinoa, but in lower quantities.
Caution should be exercised in collecting this weed, however, because when growing in heavily fertilized agricultural fields it can accumulate dangerously high concentrations of nitrates.

Chenopodiums were also used in Europe as greens.

Wild distribution
Chenopodium quinoa (and a related species from Mexico, Chenopodium nuttalliae) is most familiar as a fully domesticated plant, but it was believed to have been domesticated in the Andes from wild populations of Chenopodium quinoa. There are non-cultivated quinoa plants (Chenopodium quinoa var.
melanospermum) which grow in the same area where it is cultivated, which probably are related to the wild progenitors, but which could instead be the descendents of cultivated plants.

The Incas, who held the crop to be sacred, referred to quinoa as "chisaya mama" or "mother of all grains", and it was the Inca emperor who would traditionally sow the first seeds of the season using 'golden implements'.
During the European conquest of South America quinoa was scorned by the Spanish colonists as "food for Indians", and even actively suppressed, due to its status within indigenous non-Christian ceremonies.

On another religious note, quinoa is considered by many Jews to be kosher for Passover, if properly processed.

Nutritional value
Quinoa was of great nutritional importance in pre-Columbian Andean civilizations, being secondary only to the potato, and followed in third place by maize.
In contemporary times this crop has come to be highly appreciated for its nutritional value, as its protein content (12%–18%) is very high.
Unlike wheat or rice (which are low in lysine), quinoa contains a balanced set of essential amino acids for humans, making it an unusually complete foodstuff.
This means that unlike wheat protein, one does not need to supplement it with complementary foods such as legumes containing the other essential amino acids. It is a good source of dietary fiber and phosphorus and is high in magnesium and iron.
Quinoa is gluten free and considered easy to digest. Because of all these characteristics, quinoa is being considered as a possible crop in NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System for long-duration manned spaceflights.

NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION TABLE
COMPOSITION TABLE PER 100gr.
OF A PEARL QUINOA SAMPLE

COMPONENT
QUANTITY 100%
Protein 13.68%
Fiber 3.58%
Carbohydrates 77.68%
Fat 6.45%
Ash-gray 2.19%
Saponine 0.08%

ENERGETIC VALUE Ocal/ .100

426.96%
PERCENTUAL COMPARISON OF THE MOST IMPORTANT AMINOACIDS - QUINOA WITH OTHER GRAINS
AMINOACIDS
QUINOA
RICE
CORN
WHEAT
Lisine 6.80 3.80 2.90 2.90
Metionine 2.10 2.20 2.00 1.50
Treonine 4.50 3.80 3.80 2.90
Triptofane 1.30 1.10 1.10 1.10

Saponin content

In its natural state quinoa has a coating of bitter-tasting saponins, making it essentially unpalatable. Most quinoa sold commercially in North America has been processed to remove this coating. Some have speculated that this bitter coating may have caused the Europeans who first encountered quinoa to reject it as a food source, even as they adopted other indigenous products of the Americas like maize and potatoes.
However, this bitterness has beneficial effects in terms of cultivation, as it is a crop that is relatively untouched by birds and thus requires minimal protection.
There have been attempts made to lower the saponin content of quinoa through selective breeding in order to produce sweeter and more palatable varieties of the crop. However, when these varieties were introduced by agronomists to native growers in the high plateau, they were rejected after just one season.
The growers returned to their traditional high saponin varieties, the reason being that despite the newer varieties giving 'magnificent' yields, birds had consumed the entire crop.

The saponin content in quinoa can be mildly toxic, as can be the oxalic acid content found in the leaves of all of the chenopodium family. However, the risks associated with quinoa are minimal provided that it is properly prepared and leaves are not eaten to excess.

Preparation

Quinoa is an easy food to prepare, has a light, fluffy texture when cooked, and its mild, slightly nutty flavor makes it an alternative to white rice or couscous.

The first step in preparing quinoa is to remove the saponins, a process that requires soaking the grain in water for a few hours, then changing the water and resoaking again, or rinsing it in ample running water either in a fine strainer or in cheesecloth. Boxed quinoa typically has been pre-rinsed for convenience.

A common cooking method is to treat quinoa much like rice, bringing two cups of water to a boil with one cup of grain, covering at a low simmer and cooking for 14–18 minutes or until the germ separates from the seed.
The cooked germ looks like a tiny curl and should have a slight bite to it (like al dente pasta). Alternatively, one can use a rice cooker to prepare quinoa.

Vegetables and seasonings can also be added to make a wide range of dishes. It is also suited to vegetable pilafs, complementing bitter greens like kale.

Quinoa can serve as a high-protein breakfast food mixed with honey, almonds, or berries; it is also sold as a dry product, much like corn flakes.

Quinoa flour can be used in wheat-based and gluten-free baking. For the latter, it can be combined with sorghum flour, tapioca, and potato starch to create a nutritious gluten-free baking mix. A suggested mix is three parts quinoa flour, three parts sorghum flour, two parts potato starch, and one part tapioca starch. Quinoa flour can be used as a filling for chocolate.

Lastly, quinoa may be germinated in its raw form to boost its nutritional value.
Germination activates its natural enzymes and multiplies its vitamin and mineral content. In fact, quinoa has a notably short germination period: only 2-4 hours resting in a glass of clean water is enough to make it sprout and release gases, as opposed to, eg., 12 hours overnight with wheat. This process, besides its nutritional enhancements, softens the grains, making them suitable to be added to salads and other cold foods.

Name
The name ultimately comes from the Quechua kinua or kinoa. There are multiple other native names in South America:

Quechua: ayara, kiuna, kuchikinwa, achita, kinua, kinoa, chisaya mama
Aymara: supha, jopa, jupha, juira, ära, qallapi, vocali
Chibchan: suba, pasca
Mapudungun: dawe, sawe

casa
spanish
* If the human being should have to depend in only one substance to survive, the best option is the "Quinoa". Durante Jonson UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO.  
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Hugo
Juanp